Scientific Evidences of the Unicist Theory
This document provides the scientific evidences that sustain the Unicist Theory that deals with complex adaptive systems.The objective of the research on the scientific evidences of the Unicist Theory was centrally focused on:
- Confirming the existence and functionality of the ontogenetic intelligence of nature.
- Confirming that the unicist ontology emulates the ontogenetic intelligence of nature and allows defining the structure of complex systems.
- Confirming the functionality of the unicist double dialectical logic to go beyond dualism, which hinders apprehending reality as a unified field, in order to be able to emulate the intelligence of nature in mind.
- Confirming that concepts are defined by the ontological structure of an entity and, as Immanuel Kant already discovered, have a functional meaning that is the framework of any possible action.
- Confirming the functionality of unicist objects that are built emulating the objects in nature like the organs in the human body.
The objective of the development of the Unicist Theory was to find a structural solution to deal with complex adaptive systems considering their characteristics. Complex adaptive systems have, among other aspects, open boundaries and are integrated by the conjunction of their elements. In such systems, there is no possibility for the existence of observers.
The research on complex systems required the development of a new research methodology considering that the traditional scientific method was dysfunctional to approach such systems. The inexistence of observers, the openness of the boundaries and the existence of bi-univocal cause-effect relationships of the entities that integrate a complex system made the traditional approach dysfunctional.
It required defining a new path in research that included both destructive and non-destructive testing in real actions in order to confirm the validity of knowledge. The traditional scientific papers are not suitable because there can be no observers.
The unicist research methodology is based on dealing with the nature of the complex systems, which is defined by their unicist ontology (named concept), and forecasting their functional results, which requires refining the concept until the results are accurately forecasted.
In this document you will find seven scientific evidences of the Unicist Theory that confirm its functionality to deal with complex systems. These evidence are:
- The functionality of amino acids
- The structure of atoms
- The structure of biological entities
- The nervous system
- Similarity between natural and social objects
- Unicist concepts as stem cells
- Thinking processes and the functionality of electricity
The Functionality of Amino Acids
The Unicist Ontology of amino acids allows understanding its functionality and the possibilities of their integration to build proteins. Their purpose is given by the side chain which defines the different functions amino acids can fulfill.
It has to be considered that the Unicist Ontology emulates the ontogenetic intelligence of nature that was discovered which defines that there is always a purpose, an active and entropic principle and an energy conservation principle. The unicist ontology of amino acids is a demonstration of how this intelligence works.
The active function of an amino acid is given by the carboxyl group that establishes a supplementary relationship with the R-group. The energy conservation function is given by the amino group, which establishes a complementary relationship with the R-group.
Amino acids are biologically organic compounds integrated by amine and carboxylic functional groups, driven by a side-chain specific to each amino acid. The key elements of an amino acid are carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen, though other elements are found in the side-chains of some amino acids.
Amino acids are the building blocks of peptides and proteins. They are composed of amine and carboxylic acid groups, separated by the alpha-carbon but the side chains on the alpha carbon vary with the acid. They are the subunits of proteins: amino acids make peptide chains, peptide chains make polypeptides, polypeptides make proteins.
Amino acids are the structural units that build proteins. They join together to form short polymer chains called peptides or longer chains called either polypeptides or proteins.
These polymers are linear and unbranched, with each amino acid within the chain attached to two neighboring amino acids.
The Structure of Atoms
The purpose can also be defined as the substantive function, the active principle as the verbal function and the energy conservation principle as the adverbial function.
In physics atoms are defined by having a central nucleus, composed by positively charged protons and neutral neutrons, surrounded by negatively charged electrons.
The positively charged protons are homologous to the substantive function, the neutral neutrons are homologous to the adverbial function and the negatively charged electrons are homologous to the verbal function.
An atom, having an equal number of protons and electrons, is electrically neutral.
Living beings are continuously evolving and involving which implies that there is always disequilibrium between their purposes and their active functions which is homologous to the disequilibrium of protons and electrons.
The Structure of Biological Entities
The unicist ontology of a “biological entity” defines its structure and functionality in an environment.
The objective of the genotype is to ensure the permanence of species, its reproduction and production.
The phenotype defines the morphologic, behavioral and materialistic characteristics of the entity.
It defines the functional characteristics, the functional power of the entity and the functional assurance. Functionality defines the effectiveness of the phenotype measured as the consequence of the adaptation of the biological entity to the environment.
Functionality is measured in the capacity of adapting and growing on the one hand, and surviving, on the other hand.
The understanding of the ontology of “biological entities” helps to follow the laws of nature when dealing with genetic engineering processes and use it to apprehend the nature of beings with “artificial life” such as institutions.
The Nervous System
If we observe the functionality of the human nervous system and assess it in a conceptual way, we will notice that if the motor system performs dysfunctional actions to the vital function, such as, putting a hand on fire, the sensory system shall have to develop maximum capacity to endure the pain to avoid the situation from destabilizing.
But if the sensory system can no longer compensate the dysfunctional action performed by the motor system, the withdrawal of the hand from the fire takes place, or a functional alteration in the hand that the man has placed on the fire, hence losing the vital functionality of the said one. The functionality area of the member disappears and its function becomes “0” (zero)
Similarity between Natural and Social Objects
The behavior of human organs and the fallacies of organs is an evidence that the objects in nature have a similar behavior than objects in social life.
Objects are adaptive systems that generate value in an adaptive environment. They are autonomous interdependent entities that integrate a complex system. Objects generate fallacies to survive when their existence within a living being is endangered.
It is also the case of social roles, which are objects in social or institutional environments. Fallacies are created when the existence of a social role is endangered in order to survive.
The paradox is that these fallacies produce a short term survival of the object although the whole system is endangered. But individual survival actions always prevail over collective survival. The behavior of social objects and organic objects is similar.
The case of the fallacious behavior of kidneys as objects, will be presented as an example for their behavior in the human body.
The fallacies of organs are either movement or inaction fallacies. They are natural responses when the survival of the object-organ is being threatened by the “system” that pretends to ensure the survival of the organ in spite of the consequences on the whole body.
Unicist Concepts as Stem Cells
The function of stem cells in the human body is homologous to the function of concepts in the field of human actions. While stem cells can give rise to specialized cells and thus organs, essential concepts allow building unicist objects.
Unicist objects are adaptive systems that have a concept and generate added value within a quality assurance system to fulfill the purpose of the concept. Unicist objects are interdependent entities that integrate a complex adaptive system.
The knowledge of the essential concepts is basic to build unicist objects because these objects are the materialization of a concept.
Under certain conditions, organs can be transplanted and this is also the case of unicist objects that can be replicated as long as they belong to homologous and analogous entities.
Objects are inserted into processes to produce specific results.
The same way stem cells have the potential capacity to give birth to human organs, concepts can give birth to objects to produce results.
Thinking Processes and the Functionality of Electricity
An electric current that flows continuously in a single direction is called a direct current, or DC.
DC (direct current) is the unidirectional flow or movement of electric charge carriers. The intensity of the current can vary with time, but the general direction of movement stays the same at all times.
The positive end of the battery is always positive relative to the negative end, and the negative end of the battery is always negative relative to the positive end. This constancy is what pushes the electrons in a single direction.
To transform the voltage of direct current it is necessary to change its nature.
Dualistic Thinking (Logic)
Dualistic thinking is functionally homologous to direct current and is ruled by analogous principles.
Dualistic thinking is based on moving in a single direction to avoid the influences of the environment. It requires using the disjunction “or” to avoid changing the direction of the action.
Dualistic thinking cannot be modified during the process if a change to improve the production of results was necessary. Dualistic thinking is functional to follow operational methods. Without the use of dualistic thinking operational behavior cannot exist.
Dualistic thinking cannot be transformed into double dialectical thinking. To transform dualistic thinking into double dialectical thinking it is necessary to change the environment. Unicist reflection, the process of action-reflection-action, is the context needed to transform a dualistic approach into an integrative, double dialectical, approach.
In electricity, alternating current (AC) occurs when charge carriers in a conductor or semiconductor periodically reverse their direction of movement.
An AC waveform can be sinusoidal, square, or sawtooth-shaped. Some AC waveforms are irregular or complicated. An example of sine-wave AC is common household utility current (in the ideal case).
Square or sawtooth waves are produced by certain types of electronic oscillators, and by a low-end uninterruptible power supply (UPS) when it is operating from its battery. Irregular AC waves are produced by audio amplifiers that deal with analog voice signals and/or music.
The electrons in an AC circuit don’t really move along with the current flow. Instead, they sort of sit and wiggle back and forth.
They move one direction for 1/60th (for example) of a second, and then turn around and go the other direction for 1/60th of a second. The net effect is that they don’t really go anywhere.
Alternating current can easily be transformed towards higher or lower levels of voltage and rectified in order to be changed into direct current.
Double Dialectical Thinking (Logic)
The double dialectical thinking is homologous to the functionality of the alternating current and works in an analogous way.
It is based on the integration of two dualistic pairs, purpose-active function and purpose-energy conservation function, which move back and forth following the cycles defined by the synchronicity with the context.
These cycles have to be unperceivable by the context in order to work. This is achieved when the cycles are fully synchronic with the environment. In the field of human adaptive systems the alternation is between expansion and contraction and freedom and security (see anthropological invariables).
The double dialectical thinking can easily be transformed into dualistic thinking in order to sustain operational actions.