Intelligent Systems

Take opportunities using Greek + Chinese philosophy


According to the Greek mythology, Kairos was the god for the right or opportune moment (the supreme moment) that allowed humans exceed the limits of their fate.

The Greeks had two words to refer to time: chronos and kairos. The first one refers to chronological or sequential time, the latter signifies a time between, a moment of indeterminate time in which something special happens.

Chronos was a quantitative measure while Kairos had qualitative nature.

As it can be seen on the image of Kairos, the god of opportunities was bald on the back of his head. This meant that opportunities could only be taken when they were coming. When they were going there was no way to grasp them.

That is why an apportunity can only be seized if one’s mind is prepared and the person is able to see it before it passes. Opportunities are such because they change the fate of people.

The Chinese Perspective

Chinese philosophy considers that any crisis is integrated by a threat and an opportunity.

Crisis - Opportunity

The question we want to explore is: why can not people see the opportunities Kairos brings about?

Our hypothesis is that the Chinese are right; the opportunities always come together with a threat, and unfortunately most of the people see the threat of the opportunity and cannot see the chance that is being opened.

When fear prevails, people need to wait until the threat passes before trying to grasp the opportunity. But, paradoxically, then they cannot grasp it because the head is bald and the opportunity has been lost.

By integrating both aspects we can see that only those whose minds are prepared and have the courage to manage the threat that is implicit in any opportunity are able to grasp the hair of Kairos when he is coming.

Peter Belohlavek – Diana Belohlavek

NOTE: The Unicist Research Institute was the pioneer in complexity science research and became a private global decentralized leading research organization in the field of human adaptive systems.


Unicist Predictors: Anticipating the future based on facts

Predictors are signs that can be read to anticipate the future. They are ambiguous signs that require to be read considering the conditions of the restricted and wide contexts.

PredictorsPredictors are observable events that make the fundamentals of specific aspects of reality observable.

The fundamentals of a specific reality are able to define a concept if there is a catalyst or a gravitational force that is influencing it.

Everyone uses predictors to interpret actions. For example a smile is a predictor of what can be expected.

Non-verbal communication necessarily includes the observation of “predicting signs” in order to act or react.

The rational use of predictors requires being aware of thee structure of fundamentals that rule a given reality and the external forces of the restricted and wide contexts that influence it.

It is necessary to use predictors to deal with complex adaptive aspects of reality. The unicist algorithms and the unicist ontogenetic maps provide the structure of predictors to be observed and measured to anticipate the future in order to react or exert influence to make things happen.

Peter Belohlavek

NOTE: The Unicist Research Institute was the pioneer in using the unicist logical approach in complexity science research and became a private global decentralized leading research organization in the field of human adaptive systems. It has an academic arm and a business arm.


Homology between the Unicist Theory and the “TAO”

The homology between the Unicist Theory and the “TAO” allows understanding the level of integration that needs to be achieved to adapt to an environment to generate value.

Homology between the Unicist Theory and the TAOThis integration of the double dialectical logic that emulates the intelligence that underlies nature is the core of transforming movements into actions.

The energy is generated when the purpose is being achieved integrating the active principle and the energy conservation principle. This integration defines, at an essential level, the unified field of a given reality.

Apprehending reality as a unified field requires accepting that one is part of that reality and that there are no observers but participants when dealing in an adapted way with complex adaptive systems.

The Unicist Logic and the “TAO”

Both the Unicist Double Dialectical Logic (Unicist Logic) and the “TAO” deal with the principles that underlie nature.

Homology of the Unicist Logic and the TAO

The Tao gave birth to one.
One gave birth to two.
Two gave birth to three.
Three gave birth to all things.

Tao Te Ching – Lao Tzu

The integration of Yin and Yang builds the triadic structure of the Unicist Logic. Both the “TAO” and the Unicist Logic explain the structure of the unified field of the functionality of a specific reality including its dynamics and evolution.

Yang is homologous to the dialectics between the purpose and the active principle. It defines the active functionality of an entity.

Yin is homologous to the dialectics between the purpose and the energy conservation principle. It defines the energy conservation functionality.

The conjunction of both dialectics is defined by a triadic structure that integrates the ultimate functional purpose of the entity with the active principle and with its complement, defined by the energy conservation principle.

Both the “TAO” and the Unicist Logic are based on the use of the conjunction “and” excluding the use of the disjunction “or”.

If you are not aware of the scientific use of the “TAO”, we recommend reading the book “Tao of Physics” by Fritjof Capra.

Peter Belohlavek

NOTE: The Unicist Research Institute was the pioneer in using the unicist logical approach in complexity science research and became a private global decentralized leading research organization in the field of human adaptive systems. It has an academic arm and a business arm.


Teamwork: are repairing actions necessary?

In a cooperative teamwork every damage produced by a member to another participant needs to be repaired. This repair is a cost the damager has to pay in order to reconcile with the group.

A repairing action implies regretting the damaging action, doing common good actions (for the members of the group) and substituting what has been damaged.

But this rule does not apply in competitive environments where competition prevails over cooperation. In these environments damagers are not responsible for the damage produced as long as they consider their actions as justified, unavoidable or necessary.

In actual teamwork many of the damaging actions are non-conscious. They are justified if they happen in a competitive environment, but require repair in a cooperative context, (intentions do not count).

The rules of an environment define the cooperative or competitive prevalence. Individuals need to follow these rules to be functional. For example the building of “spirit de corps” requires, on the one hand, the dominance of cooperation in the internal relationship in a group but, simultaneously, a strong competition with the external environment.

Cultures like the Japanese and the German are based on cooperation. The institution of “hara-kiri” is the expression of the need to repair in extreme conditions.

Depending on the goals, cooperation or competition have to prevail or need to be integrated to build social capital. Both are ethical behaviors with different functionalities.

Repairing actions are necessary to build social capital or to cooperate, but are unnecessary in competitive environments. In these environments damages are part of the rules of the game. Sorry, nothing personal… is a saying that suffices.

NOTE: The Unicist Research Institute was the pioneer in complexity science research and became a global decentralized world-class research organization in the field of human adaptive systems.


Working with the wisdom of people

This synthesis is a foundation and justification of why, when dealing with strategic or conceptual aspects of work, it is necessary to work with the wisdom those that are participating have, in order to upgrade solutions to generate value. Everyone has some aspect in which s/he is wise, and this wisdom generates the context in which her/his behavior is adaptive.

Unicist Ontology of Doers

Almost 40 years ago I had the opportunity to develop an organizational process in a midsize organization which drove me to meet the people who drove the operation of their open salt mine.

These people demonstrated, without needing to demonstrate, that their leaders, even though they had hardly completed their elementary school, had the wisdom that is reserved for the “chosen ones”.

It was an extremely productive work, which was just the demonstration that there is no necessary relation between scholarship and wisdom. Scholarship might provide erudition, but wisdom needs to be earned step by step and brick by brick.

I never forgot this experience, which led me to the decision to always work with the wise part every individual has when dealing with the conceptual or strategic aspects of businesses.

Wisdom is a pathway with many masters

WisdomWisdom can be defined as the capacity of an individual to integrate idealism and realism with value adding actions.

Wisdom is a state that requires focusing on specific aspects of reality using questions to apprehend their nature and having the necessary knowledge of the environment in order to generate value.

Wisdom cannot be overcome because the nature of some aspect of reality has been understood and can be influenced.

But it has to be considered that wise people do not compete with others to have a place in the world. They earned their place in the world. That is why they remain masters in the field in which they are wise.

The characteristic of individuals who achieved wisdom is that they had multiple masters that had an authoritative role in their lives. These roles are still in force and the masters are still admired.

Admiration and functional envy are the concepts that allow achieving wisdom. Individuals who admire others’ achievements and deeds have the opportunity to achieve wisdom, but only if they pursue the objective of adding value in an environment. The functional envy drives individuals to achieve goals.

Individuals with conflictive relations with authority can never achieve wisdom. They might be extremely erudite, extremely efficient workers but they will never be able to integrate idealism and realism with a value-adding attitude in their environment.

The apparent paradox of wisdom is the need of multiple masters. It is said that disciples are those learners who overcome their teachers. But wisdom, defined as the space where an individual has been able to integrate idealism and realism with value adding actions, cannot be overcome.

Competing with an authority in a field where she/he is wise is a demonstration that the need to gain supersedes the need to add value. The existence of multiple masters make wisdom possible.

Achieving wisdom cannot be a goal for a wise person; wisdom is the consequence of the action of an individual but does not cause it. It is unwise to try to achieve wisdom.

That is why wisdom is a pathway with multiple masters. Masters are ordinary or extraordinary people who have achieved wisdom in some field. Look for them while you continue adding value.

To achieve wisdom you need to abandon your modesty and expand your humbleness.  Wise people do not need to be right, they just have to be functional.

What is the difference between Wisdom and Erudition?


EruditionErudition is not analogous to wisdom; it is fallacious version of wisdom. Wisdom implies action while erudition does not.

Erudition is an addiction that drives people to build a parallel hypothetical reality where they consider themselves wise. It is a frequent addiction of rationally gifted individuals.

They are driven by envy which makes them accumulate data they use to judge the originators of the data while they try to demonstrate to others that they are wise.

This allows them confronting with others in their hypothetical reality and feel that their judgments make them wise.

They manipulate in order to ensure that their hypothetical reality prevails over actual facts.

Opinators: The pseudo-erudites

Opinators are individuals whose goal is to impose their opinions in their area of influence in order to obtain full recognition for their personal opinions.

OpinatorsThey use their pre-concepts to deal with reality and blame others for all what becomes dysfunctional when failure follows their groundless opinions.

Erudites are their implicit role model, although they do not have the energy to acquire the knowledge in order to have the rational information.

They suffer from innovation blindness, therefore they disregard any information that endangers the validity of their pre-concepts. That is why they cannot deal with the fundamental knowledge of things and always build an hypothetical solutions under the motto “why not”.

Opinators are fundamentalists in their field of influence who install “suspicion and doubt” on any action that endangers their subjective dominant position.

When they are very smart, they are notorious manipulators.


If you need to develop solutions in adaptive environments, you will need to work with the wisdom of people, and be aware of “Erudites and Opinators” who will try to foster hypothetical solutions in order to leave things the way they were before, while blaming others for what they cannot do.

Peter Belohlavek

NOTE: The Unicist Research Institute was the pioneer in using the unicist logical approach in complexity science research and became a private global decentralized leading research organization in the field of human adaptive systems. It has an academic arm and a business arm.


Erudition is an anti-concept of intellectual behavior

The Unicist Approach to knowledge management defines that the purpose of intellectuals is to adapt to the environment in the less energy consuming way. The paradox is that ordinary people consider erudition as a superior level of intellectualism and admire the erudite considering that s/he can transform data into actions.

Erudition is defined as the addiction of people who use data and information to judge others to build a hypothetical (parallel) reality where they are in control. Erudition is a way to avoid needing to adapt to the environment and expecting that the environment accepts the superior reality the erudite has in her/his mind.

It has to be considered that every activity includes intellectual aspects which allow individuals to understand what they are doing. On the surface, erudition is perceived by the majority as a superior level of knowledge while in fact it is an addiction that hinders the integration of the data the erudite has in mind with the external reality.

An erudite envies the people of the environment who succeed in what they do, having, hypothetically, an extremely lower level of understanding. Erudition as an addiction uses extreme dualistic thinking which is functional to the building of parallel realities. That is why they can only deal with analogical and hypothetical information.

Homologies, which allow integrating information to adapt to the environment, are out of the reach of erudition, because they require the use of a double dialectical logic.

Erudition drives nowhere. Erudite leaders are extremely dangerous when they are in charge of groups because they cannot adapt to the environment and need that individuals follow them into their parallel reality. They are the most dangerous leaders you can imagine, but they are excellent informants for non-erudite leaders.

Peter Belohlavek

NOTE: The Unicist Research Institute was the pioneer in using the unicist logical approach in complexity science research and became a private global decentralized leading research organization in the field of human adaptive systems. It has an academic arm and a business arm.


The unicist theory expanded the boundaries of sciences

The unicist theory expanded the frontiers of sciences making the scientific approach to complex adaptive systems possible without needing to use arbitrary palliatives to transform complex systems into systemic systems in order to be able to research them.

Paradoxically this is a breakthrough and a back to basics. On the one hand it is a breakthrough because it changed the paradigms of scientific research. On the other hand it is a back to basics because it drives sciences to deal with the nature of reality.

The unicist logical approach opened the possibilities of managing complexity sciences using a pragmatic, structured and functionalist approach.
Unicist Complexity Research

The unicist approach to complexity is based on the research of the unicist ontological structure of a complex adaptive system which regulates its evolution.

This is based on emulating the structure of the unicist ontogenetic intelligence of nature considering that every functional aspect of reality has a unique unicist ontological structure.

The approach to ontological structures of reality requires going beyond the dualistic thinking approach and being able to use the double dialectical logic to approach complex adaptive systems.

The research in complexity science needs to have its own format for its presentation that has a structural difference with the papers for systemic sciences (abstract, introduction, materials and methods, discussion, literature). It has to be considered that:

1)      A complex system has open boundaries which implies that the experiences cannot be reproduced they can only be emulated in homologous fields.

2)      Having open boundaries there is no possibility of building artificial experiences to research a complex adaptive system.

3)      As it has open boundaries it cannot be observed. The observers are part of the system. This implies that a peer review can only be made based on the use of destructive tests in homologous fields.

4)      The conditions of the environment change, (No one can bathe twice in the same river – Heraclitus) which means that an apparently same experience might produce different results.

5)      The elements of a complex adaptive system are integrated by the conjunction “and” with multiple bi-univocal relationships. Therefore there are no univocal cause-effect relationships; this implies that the only valid measurable aspects are the results obtained.

6)      Predictions of results and measurement of the achievements are the way the validity of the knowledge of the structure of a complex adaptive system is confirmed.

7)      The discussions with other opinions are meaningless because complex adaptive systems have open boundaries and only its application allows confirming the knowledge obtained.

8)      Multiple real applications in different homologous and analogous fields, preceded by a prediction of the results that will be obtained, need to be done to confirm the knowledge of a complex adaptive system.

9)      The method of the research is in the application itself which has to correspond to the field of activity of the complex adaptive system.

The research work

As researchers are part of any complex adaptive system that is being researched, a unicist reflection process is needed to develop the process. This implies a full involvement of the researcher in the system following an action-reflection-action process to find the unicist ontological structure that regulates the evolution of the complex adaptive system.

The presentation of the knowledge of complex adaptive systems includes two different levels of information:

a)      The abstract: which includes the discoveries of the unicist ontological structures and the ontogenetic maps written in unicist standard language

b)      The research process: which describes the research process

The basic steps of the research process are:

1)      Develop the hypothetical structure of the ontology.

2)      Analyze the ontology and divide it into sub-ontologies following the laws of complementation and supplementation (only when necessary and possible).

3)      Define observable results that need to be considered to validate the ontology.

4)      Define the application fields of the ontology to validate its functionality.

5)      Develop the applications beginning with destructive and non-destructive pilot tests to forecast reality.

6)      Develop at least five experiences in the application field differing completely one from the other.

7)      Develop forecasts of at least three periods with full certainty.

8)      Restart the research process every time a deviation occurs.


It becomes evident that the field of researching complex adaptive systems is for doers, who assumed the responsibility for results and have the necessary inner freedom to emulate in mind adaptive systems that are in motion. The use of the knowledge does not require knowing how it was produced.


NOTE: The Unicist Research Institute was the pioneer in complexity science research and became a private global decentralized world-class research organization in the field of human adaptive systems.


Complex problem solving, psychic economy and over-adaptive approaches

The complexity of a problem is an objective / functional characteristic and not a matter of opinions. By just focusing on three aspects of complexity it is possible to define if a problem is complex:

Complex Problem Solving1) Does the problem have open boundaries or is it isolated?

2) Is it ruled by univocal cause-effect relationships or are they bi-univocal ones?

3) Is it integrated by variables or is it necessary to apprehend it as a unified field?

When the problem is complex, it is necessary to apprehend its concept in order to be able to manage the dynamics of its unified field. On the other hand, when the problem is simple, a systemic approach suffices because the problem can be managed as being static.

The psychic economy principle defines that the brain always uses the less energy consuming pathway to solve a problem. It is necessary to know the actual problem an individual is solving in order to understand if the pathway s/he chose is functional or not.

An adaptive approach to reality is an energy consuming activity, which requires making the effort of apprehending the concept that defines the “stem cell” of the solution in order to be able to solve a complex problem.

This is meaningful when individuals are truly solution focused, because the energy is reloaded as soon as “the solution” has been achieved. But this effort becomes meaningless when individuals are focused on developing “their solution” and not “the solution”.

Over-adaptive approaches are low-energy consuming activities that suffice to deal with systemic problems and to avoid personal risks when developing solutions. That is why individuals switch from an adaptive approach to an over-adaptive approach when they have no full commitment with the building of solutions and do not manage the concept of what is being done.

You can learn about the “Drivers of Human Behavior” at:

Peter Belohlavek

NOTE: The Unicist Research Institute was the pioneer in using the unicist logical approach in complexity science research and became a private global decentralized leading research organization in the field of human adaptive systems. It has an academic arm and a business arm.


Introducing Adaptiveness in Business is a Complex Problem

Complex problem solving is for the few. That is why the learning of complex aspects solving is for those who have assumed the responsibility of simplifying the processes to allow ordinary people to work with them.

Knowledge of Adaptive SystemsThe apprehension of complexity in business requires four basic conditions:

  1. Being driven by a superior ethical intelligence that drives actions towards value generation for “others”. It has to be considered that the mind inhibits the apprehension of concepts for one’s benefit. Only pre-concepts or anti-concepts are perceivable for those who seek for personal benefits.
  2. Being able to reflect until the “gamma brain waves” become accessible to apprehend concepts.
  3. Having both experiences and the necessary technical-analytical knowledge in the specific field that allow an intuitive approach without being driven by anti-intuition.
  4. Being able to consciously emulate the complex system in mind in order to become part of it which requires having the necessary language to do so.

These conditions are necessary but, anyhow, at the end, “there will be certainty of error and probability of nearness”.

If these conditions are not given, individuals become “observers” of a given reality and cannot apprehend the complex system as such and can only make systemic approaches leaving complexity aside.

Peter Belohlavek

NOTE: The Unicist Research Institute was the pioneer in complexity science research and became a private global decentralized leading research organization in the field of human adaptive systems.


From Dualism to Double Dialectical Approaches

The dualism of neural functionality makes dualistic logical approaches become the natural way to deal with reality. This dualism is functional in operational environments, ruled by cause-effect relationships where the actors dominate the consequences of their actions.

Common sense is the consequence of having found recipes using dualistic logic. Common sense rules are pre-concepts that work as recipes for the one who uses them.

At an abstract level, truth tables are also the consequence of the use of dualism. In the field of dualistic approaches things are true or false, good or bad, etc. The disjunction “OR” is the basic rule when dealing with dualistic approaches in operational environments. This makes people feel powerful because they establish the “OR” they need.

But when dealing with adaptive aspects of reality there is no possibility to define actions using a dualistic approach because the triadic structure of reality cannot be apprehended with a binary model.

The triadic structure of reality is defined by a purpose, an active function and an energy conservation function:  To apprehend this triadic structure with a binary mind it is necessary to be able to build a double dialectical approach in mind that emulates a specific reality.

This approach was named unicist double dialectical logic because it allows defining the unified field of adaptive systems in order to diagnose and influence them. It is based on the fact that in complex systems all the elements are integrated by the conjunction “AND”.

The Unicist double dialectical approach leaves behind the truth tables (True “OR” False) and replaces them with functional tables evaluating the functionality based on predefined purposes.

The unicist reflection process: action-reflection-action is the technology to be used to transform dualistic logical approaches into unicist double dialectical approaches in order to define complex adaptive systems. This technology allows starting with the use of disjunctions “OR” and ending with the use of conjunctions “AND”.

This process requires that those who have decided to deal with complex problems need to be fully focused on producing results, have sound knowledge of the problem and have decided to influence it in an adapted way.

The paradox is that at the end the diagnoses and solutions found need to be transformed into operational “recipes” in order to make them manageable by ordinary people.

But it has to be considered that without being able to manage the triadic structure of complex adaptive systems, the diagnoses and solutions developed are either palliatives or fallacies that cannot produce meaningful results.

NOTE: The Unicist Research Institute was the pioneer in complexity science research and became a private global decentralized world-class research organization in the field of human adaptive systems.